Medical Notes: Anatomy cc joshuaidowu.blogspot.com

ANATOMY NOTE 2 By Prof  Gregg Gonsalves
Please note that Prof Gonsalves note was gotten Online. Prof Gonsalves is not a lecturer at LUTH

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                                                  Instructor: Greg Gonsalves

                                     Lecture 2: Overview of Organ Systems

I. Major Organ Systems

            A. There are 12 major organ systems of the body:

                        1. integumentary (skin)

                        2. skeletal (bone)

                        3. muscular (muscles)

                        4. nervous (CNS and PNS)

                        5. endocrine (hormones/regulation)

                        6. cardiovascular (heart and blood vessels)

                        7. lymphatic (lymph fluid)

                        8. respiratory (lungs)

                        9. digestive (stomach, intestine)

                        10. urinary (kidneys, bladder)

                        11. reproductive (male and female genitalia)

                        12. immune (cells in the blood/body)

II. Integumentary System

            A. Major Components

                        1. skin (epidermis, dermis, etc.)

                        2. hair

                        3. sweat and oil glands

                        4. sensory organs and glands

            B. Major Functions

                        1. helps to regulate body temperature

                        2. protects against external injury and desiccation

                        3. eliminates salts and urea

                        4. produces vitamin D

                        5. responds to temperature, pressure, and pain

III. Skeletal System

            A. Major Components

                        1. bone

                        2. cartilages

                        3. tendons

                        4. ligaments

                        5. joints

            B. Major Functions

                        1. provide protection for internal organs (skull, ribs)

                        2. provide support for body

                        3. mechanical advantage for muscular actions (levers)

                        4. storage of vital minerals – calcium

                        5. site of blood cell formation (marrow)

IV. Muscular System

            A. Major Components

                        1. muscles of different type/function

                                    a. striated muscle (voluntary)

                                    b. smooth muscle (involuntary)

                                    c. cardiac muscle (heart)

            B. Major Functions

                        1. striated muscle

                                    a. primarily to contract on command

                                    b. allows voluntary motions such as walking,

                           grasping, and moving in general, facial

                                       expressions

                        2. smooth muscle

                                    a. contracts to allow involuntary motion

                                    b. along arteries, digestive tract

                        3. cardiac muscle

                                    a. contracts in rhythmic fashion involuntarily

                                    b. propels blood through lungs and body

V. Nervous System

            A. Major Components

                        1. brain and spinal cord (Central Nervous System)

                        2. nerves and sensory organs (Peripheral N S)

            B. Major Functions

                        1. detect changes in internal and external environment

                        2. respond to changes to keep body homeostatic

                        3. organize activities of muscles and glands

VI. Endocrine System

            A. Major Components

                        1. pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pineal

             glands

                        2. ovaries, testes, pancreas

            B. Major Functions

                        1. maintains body homeostasis, growth, development

                        2. produce hormones in response to a variety of stimuli             

            (increased sugar level, impending doom, sexual       attraction,

       length of day)

                        3. hormones then act on target organ to cause change

VII. Cardiovascular System

            A. Major Components

                        1. heart

                        2. blood vessels (arteries, veins, capillaries)

                        3. blood (serum, proteins, red & white cells)

            B. Major Functions

                        1. primarily a transport system moving blood

                                    a. oxygen, carbon dioxide, ions (salts Na,K,Ca,Cl)

                                    b. nutrients and waste

                                    c. hormones and proteins

                                    d. white blood cells and antibodies

VIII. Lymphatic System

            A. Major Components

                        1. lymph nodes and vessels

                        2. spleen

                        3. thymus

                        4. other scattered lymph tissue

            B. Major Functions

                        1. location of lymphocytes involved in body immunity

                        2. remove pathogens and debris from blood

                        3. returns leaked fluid to blood vessels

XI. Respiratory System

            A. Major Components

                        1. nasal passages

                        2. pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi

                        3. lungs

            B. Major Functions

                        1. remove carbon dioxide from blood

                        2. allow blood to uptake oxygen from environment

X. Digestive System

            A. Major Components

                        1. oral cavity, esophagus

                        2. stomach

                        3. small and large intestine

                        4. rectum

                        5. other: teeth, salivary glands, liver, pancreas

            B. Major Functions

                        1. breakdown foods into minute particles to be absorbed                                   by the blood and delivered to body

                        2. remove unused foodstuff from the body as feces

XI. Urinary System

            A. Major Components

                        1. kidneys

                        2. ureters

                        3. bladder

                        4. urethra

            B. Major Functions

                        1. remove nitrogen-based waste molecules (urea, uric                             acid, ammonia) from the blood and body

                        2. maintain water balance and ion/acid balance of blood

XII. Reproductive System

            A. Major Components

                        Male: testes, scrotum, penis, and duct system for sperm

                        Female: ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina

            B. Major Functions

                        1. produce gametes (sperm and egg)

                        2. allow means for conception to occur

                        3. provide environment for fetal development

XIII. Immune System (Special)

            A. Major Components

                        1. white blood cells and other special immune cells

            B. Major Functions

                        1. identify foreign material and eli

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